Fare Collection and Ridership Changes

While ridership remains far from normal, the return to fare collection provided a natural experiment for learning more about how the system is being used and how passengers respond to fares.

MBTA Passenger Substitution Options

Substitution, as it relates to walkability, is defined here as the propensity at which passengers exclusively choose a particular route over other nearby alternative routes. Substitution explains differences in how passengers choose to access MBTA services.